It is said that in the Fillipino martial arts the weapon is mainly a substitute for the empty hand. Many techniques remain practically the same with or without a weapon being used. Many empty hand techniques come from espada y daga.
Many parts of the body can serve as a weapon so empty hand fighting involves punching, kicking, elbows, knees, headbutts etc. Locks and throws are also applied.
Doce Pares Mano Mano contains a special tapi tapi-drill called kaw-it. This involves trapping and checking the opponent's attacking hand with only a few fingers or even one finger and simultaneously counter-attacking.
These controling techniques can be applied in armed or unarmed fighting and are also used to break the opponent's rhythm.